CountryFocus: Healthcare, Regulatory and Reimbursement Landscape – Spain

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GlobalData, the industry analysis specialist has released its latest report: CountryFocus: Healthcare, Regulatory and Reimbursement Landscape – Spain. The report is an essential source of information on and analysis of the healthcare, regulatory and reimbursement landscape in Spain. It identifies the key trends in the country’s healthcare market, and provides insights into its demographic, regulatory, and reimbursement landscape and healthcare infrastructure. Most importantly, the report provides valuable insights into the trends and segmentation of the pharmaceutical and medical device markets. It uses data and information sourced from proprietary databases, secondary research, and in-house analysis by GlobalData’s team of industry experts.

Spain has strong healthcare infrastructure and the Spanish National Health System provides free healthcare for all citizens. In 2015, Spain spent approximately $1.2 billion on R&D, and exported approximately $11.5 billion of pharmaceuticals.

The pharmaceutical market was worth approximately $25.1 billion in 2008, and declined to approximately $23.7 billion in 2016 and is expected to reach $25.1 billion in 2021, registering a CAGR of 0.9% between 2017 and 2021. The primary reasons for this decline are the austerity measures implemented by the Spanish government. The factors influencing the pharmaceutical market are:

  • The consolidation of the biotechnology sector and an established pharmaceutical industry, which is the leading recipient of R&D spending in Spain
  • Government support: The provision of financial aid for foreign technology companies
  • Excellent infrastructure for innovation: The exponential growth of science and technology parks (nearly 80), research centers and institutes of technology and the incorporation of the latest technology for life science projects
  • Highly qualified workforce: Large percentage of workers with post-graduate qualifications
  • Favorable cost-benefit ratio of human capita: Low salaries and high demand for jobs in the scientific or biotech industry .

The medical device market was valued at $7.8billion in 2009, and is projected to grow at a CAGR of 4.5% to an estimated $12.3 billion in 2021.

Scope

The report provides information on the healthcare, regulatory, and reimbursement landscape in Spain, and includes:

An overview of the pharmaceutical and medical device markets, comprising market size, segmentation, and key drivers and barriers

Profiles and SWOT analyses of the major players in the pharmaceutical market: Pfizer, Novartis, Sanofi, GSK and Merck & Co., as well as profiles and SWOT analyses of the major players in the medical device market: GSK,Baxter International, Johnson & Johnson, Svenska Cellulosa Aktiebolaget and Paul Hartmann

Insightful review of the reimbursement and regulatory landscape, with analysis covering details of the country’s healthcare reimbursement process, regulatory agencies and the approval processes for new drugs and medical devices

Detailed analysis of the political and economic environment, covering economic indicators, demographics, healthcare infrastructure and healthcare expenditure

An overview of the opportunities for and challenges to growth in the healthcare market

Reasons to buy

This report will enhance your decision-making capability by allowing you to:

Develop business strategies by understanding the trends shaping and driving the Spanish healthcare market

Drive revenues by understanding the key trends, reimbursement and regulatory policies, pharmaceutical market segments, and companies likely to affect the Spanish healthcare market in the future

Formulate effective sales and marketing strategies by understanding the competitive landscape and analyzing the performance of various competitors

Organize your sales and marketing efforts by identifying the market categories and segments that present the best opportunities for consolidation, investment, and strategic partnerships

Identify, understand, and capitalize on the opportunities and challenges in the Spanish healthcare market

Companies mentioned

Pfizer, Novartis, Sanofi, GSK and Merck & Co,GSK,Baxter International, Johnson & Johnson, Svenska Cellulosa Aktiebolaget and Paul Hartmann.

Pfizer, Novartis, Sanofi, GSK and Merck & Co,GSK,Baxter International, Johnson & Johnson, Svenska Cellulosa Aktiebolaget and Paul Hartmann.

Table of Contents

Table of Contents

1 Table of Contents

1.1 List of Tables

1.2 List of Figures

2 Executive Summary

3 Introduction

3.1 GlobalData ...

Table of Contents

1 Table of Contents

1.1 List of Tables

1.2 List of Figures

2 Executive Summary

3 Introduction

3.1 GlobalData Report Guidance

4 Overview of Pharmaceutical and Medical Device Markets

4.1 Pharmaceutical Market

4.1.1 Market Overview

4.1.2 Pharmaceutical Exports and Imports

4.1.3 Supply Channels

4.1.4 Market Segments

4.1.5 Major Therapeutic Areas

4.1.6 Major Players

4.2 Medical Device Market

4.2.1 Market Overview

4.2.2 Overview of Top Five Segments

4.2.3 Diagnostic Market

4.2.4 Major Players

4.3 Market Drivers and Barriers

4.3.1 Drivers

4.3.2 Barriers

5 Market Access

5.1 Reimbursement and Payer Landscape

5.1.1 Overview of Healthcare System

5.1.2 Reimbursement Process

5.1.3 Overview of Insurance Providers

5.1.4 Patient Share in Healthcare Expenditure

5.1.5 Price Trends in the Healthcare Sector

5.1.6 Pricing Policies

5.2 Regulatory Landscape

5.2.1 Overview of Regulatory Agencies

5.2.2 Market Authorization Procedure for Pharmaceutical Products

5.2.3 New Medical Device Approval Process

5.2.4 Licensing Process for Pharmaceutical and Medical Device Manufacturing

5.2.5 Licensing Process for Pharmaceutical Exports and Imports

5.2.6 Intellectual Property Rights

5.2.7 Clinical Trial Regulations

5.2.8 Pharmaceutical Advertising Regulations

5.2.9 Pharmacy Regulations

5.2.10 Labeling and Packaging Regulations

6 Country Analysis

6.1 Political Environment

6.1.1 Political Structure

6.1.2 Current Political Environment

6.1.3 Healthcare Policy Initiatives

6.2 Economic Landscape

6.3 Economic Indicators

6.3.1 Gross Domestic Product

6.3.2 Gross National Income

6.3.3 Inflation

6.3.4 Currency Exchange Rate

6.3.5 Foreign Direct Investment

6.3.6 Foreign Exchange Reserves

6.3.7 Trade Balance

6.3.8 Government Structural Balance

6.3.9 Government Net Debt

6.3.10 Major Industries

6.4 Demographics

6.4.1 Population

6.4.2 Education and Literacy

6.4.3 Employment

6.4.4 Disease Burden

6.5 Healthcare Infrastructure

6.5.1 Healthcare Facilities

6.5.2 Healthcare Parameters

6.5.3 Environmental Health

6.5.4 Healthcare Personnel

6.6 Healthcare Expenditure

6.6.1 Overview

6.6.2 Share of Public and Private Sectors

6.6.3 Major Components of Healthcare Expenditure

6.6.4 Spending in R&D

6.7 Trade Associations

6.7.1 Farmaindustria

6.7.2 The Spanish Society of Public Health and Health Services Administration

6.7.3 The Spanish Society of Health Informatics

6.7.4 Spanish Generic Medicines Association

6.8 Trade Fairs

7 Opportunities and Challenges

7.1 Opportunities

7.2 Challenges

8 Appendix

8.1 Abbreviations

8.2 Bibliography

8.3 Research Methodology

8.3.1 Coverage

8.3.2 Secondary Research

8.3.3 Forecasts

8.3.4 Expert Panel

8.4 Contact Us

8.5 Disclaimer

List of tables

List of Tables

Table 1: Pharmaceutical Market, Spain, Revenue ($bn), 2009–2016

Table 2: Pharmaceutical Market, Spain, Revenue ($bn), 2017–2021

Table 3: Pharmaceutical Market ...

List of Tables

Table 1: Pharmaceutical Market, Spain, Revenue ($bn), 2009–2016

Table 2: Pharmaceutical Market, Spain, Revenue ($bn), 2017–2021

Table 3: Pharmaceutical Market, Spain, Exports and Imports ($bn), 2009–2016

Table 4: Pharmaceutical Market, Spain, Generic Pharmaceutical Market Share (%), 2009–2016

Table 5: Pharmaceutical Market, Spain, Red Biotechnology, Share of Diagnostics Pipeline by Disease Area (%), 2016

Table 6: Pharmaceutical Market, Spain, Red Biotechnology, Share of Therapeutics Pipeline by Disease Area (%), 2016

Table 7: Pharmaceutical Market, Spain, OTC Drug Market Revenue ($bn), 2009–2016

Table 8: Pharmaceutical Market, Spain, Major OTC Drug Classes, Revenue ($bn) and Market Share (%), 2015

Table 9: Pharmaceutical Market, Spain, Major Therapeutic Areas by Units Sold (millions) and Share (%), 2015

Table 10: Pharmaceutical Market, Pfizer, Late-Stage Pipeline, 2016

Table 11: Major Products, Novartis, Global, 2016

Table 12: Late-Stage Pipeline, Novartis, Global, 2015

Table 13: Major Products, Sanofi, Global, 2015

Table 14: Late-Stage Pipeline, Sanofi, Global, 2015

Table 15: Pharmaceutical Market, Merck & Co., Global, Major Products, 2015

Table 16: Pharmaceutical Market, Merck & Co., Global, Late-Stage Pipeline, 2016

Table 17: Medical Device Market, Spain, Revenue ($bn), 2009–2016

Table 18: Medical Device Market, Spain, Revenue ($bn), 2017–2021

Table 19: Medical Device Market, Spain, Revenue ($m) and Market Share (%) by Segment, 2016

Table 20: In Vitro Diagnostics Market, Spain, Revenue ($m), 2009–2016

Table 21: In Vitro Diagnostics, Spain, Revenue ($m) and Market Share (%) of Major Players, 2014

Table 22: Diabetes Care Device Market, Spain, Revenue ($m), 2009–2016

Table 23: Diabetes Care Devices, Spain, Revenue ($m) and Market Share (%) of Major Players, 2015

Table 24: Ophthalmic Device Market, Spain, Revenue ($m), 2009–2016

Table 25: Ophthalmic Devices, Spain, Revenue ($m) and Market Share (%) of Major Players, 2015

Table 26: Orthopedic Devices, Spain, Revenue ($m), 2009–2016

Table 27: Orthopedic Devices, Spain, Revenue ($m) and Market Share (%) of Major Players, 2016

Table 28: Hospital Supplies Market, Spain, Revenue ($m), 2009–2016

Table 29: Hospital Supplies Market, Spain, Revenue ($m) and Market Share (%) of Major Players, 2014

Table 30: Medical Device Market, Spain, Diagnostic Market, Revenue ($bn), 2009–2016

Table 31: Medical Device Market, Spain, Revenue ($bn), 2017–2021

Table 32: Medical Device Market, Spain, Revenue ($m) and Market Share (%) of Major Players, 2012

Table 33: Baxter International, Global, Major Products, 2016

Table 34: Paul Hartmann, Global, Major Products, 2016

Table 35: Healthcare System, Spain, Pharmaceutical Reimbursement Categories, 2014

Table 36: Healthcare Expenditure, Spain, Out-of-Pocket Expenditure as Percentage of Total Expenditure (%), 2009–2016

Table 37: Market Access, Spain, Healthcare Consumer Price Index Annual Change (%), 2009–2016

Table 38: Economic Indicators, Spain, GDP per Capita ($), 2009–2016

Table 39: Economic Indicators, Spain, GDP per Capita ($), 2017–2021

Table 40: Economic Indicators, Spain, GDP Annual Growth (%), 2009–2016

Table 41: Economic Indicators, Spain, GDP Annual Growth (%), 2017–2021

Table 42: Economic Indicators, Spain, GNI per Capita ($), 2009–2016

Table 43: Economic Indicators, Spain, Consumer Price Index, 2009–2016

Table 44: Economic Indicators, Spain, Average Consumer Price Index, 2017–2021

Table 45: Economic Indicators, Spain, Average Consumer Price Index Annual Change (%), 2009–2016

Table 46: Economic Indicators, Spain, Currency Exchange Rate (€/$), 2009–2016

Table 47: Economic Indicators, Spain, Foreign Direct Investment ($bn), 2009–2016

Table 48: Economic Indicators, Spain, Foreign Exchange Reserves ($bn), 2009–2016

Table 49: Economic Indicators, Spain, Imports of Goods and Services ($bn), 2009–2016

Table 50: Economic Indicators, Spain, Exports of Goods and Services ($bn), 2009–2016

Table 51: Economic Indicators, Spain, General Government Structural Balance ($bn), 2009–2016

Table 52: Economic Indicators, Spain, Government Net Debt as Percentage of GDP (%), 2009–2016

Table 53: Economic Indicators, Spain, Government Net Debt as Percentage of GDP (%), 2017–2021

Table 54: Economic Indicators, Spain, Major Industries by Revenue ($bn), 2014

Table 55: Demographics, Spain, Population (million), 2009–2016

Table 56: Demographics, Spain, Population (million), 2017–2021

Table 57: Demographics, Spain, Urban–Rural Population Share (%), 2009–2016

Table 58: Demographics, Spain, Urban–Rural Population Share (%), 2017–2021

Table 59: Demographics, Spain, Population Distribution by Age Group (%), 2009–2016

Table 60: Demographics, Spain, Population Distribution by Age Group (%), 2017–2021

Table 61: Demographics, Spain, Births (per 1,000 population), 2009–2016

Table 62: Demographics, Spain, Mortality (per 1,000 population), 2009–2016

Table 63: Demographics, Spain, Major Causes of Mortality (%), 2013

Table 64: Demographics, Spain, Mortality Rate of Children Under Five (per 1,000 live births), 2009–2016

Table 65: Demographics, Spain, Immunization Rate (%), 2009–2016

Table 66: Demographics, Spain, Major Causes of Male Mortality, 2013

Table 67: Demographics, Spain, Major Causes of Female Mortality (%), 2012

Table 68: Demographics, Spain, Gender Ratio (M/F), 2009–2016

Table 69: Demographics, Spain, Life Expectancy at Birth (years), 2009–2016

Table 70: Demographics, Spain, Students Enrolled at Different Levels in Non-university Courses (%), 2014–2015

Table 71: Demographics, Spain, Students Enrolled at Different Levels in University Courses (%), 2013–2014

Table 72: Demographics, Spain, Unemployment Rate (%), 2009–2016

Table 73: Demographics, Spain, Distribution of Employment by Sector (%), 2015

Table 74: Demographics, Spain, Number of Hospital Admissions and Diseases Diagnosed, 2015

Table 75: Demographics, Spain, Major Diseases, Disability-Adjusted Life Years (000’), 2014

Table 76: Healthcare Infrastructure, Spain, Hospitals, 2009–2016

Table 77: Healthcare Infrastructure, Spain, Number of Hospitals by Type of Treatment, 2009–2016

Table 78: Healthcare Infrastructure, Spain, Number of Hospitals by Sector, 2009–2016

Table 79: Healthcare Infrastructure, Spain, Number of Hospital Beds by Sector, 2009–2016

Table 80: Healthcare Infrastructure, Spain, Hospital Beds by Type of Treatment Provided, 2009–2016

Table 81: Healthcare Infrastructure, Spain, Diagnostic Units (per 100,000 population), 2009–2016

Table 82: Healthcare Infrastructure, Spain, Hospital Beds (per 1,000 population), 2009–2016

Table 83: Healthcare Infrastructure, Spain, Doctors (per 1,000 population), 2009–2016

Table 84: Healthcare Infrastructure, Spain, PM2.5 (µg per m³), 2009–2016

Table 85: Healthcare Infrastructure, Spain, CO2 Emissions (metric tons per capita), 2009–2016

Table 86: Healthcare Infrastructure, Spain, Nurses, 2009–2016

Table 87: Healthcare Infrastructure, Spain, Pharmacists, 2009–2016

Table 88: Healthcare Infrastructure, Spain, Dentists, 2009–2016

Table 89: Healthcare Infrastructure, Spain, Qualified Midwives, 2009–2016

Table 90: Healthcare Infrastructure, Spain, Healthcare Expenditure as Percentage of GDP (%), 2009–2016

Table 91: Healthcare Infrastructure, Spain, Public–Private Share of Expenditure (%), 2009–2016

Table 92: Healthcare Infrastructure, Spain, Major Components of Healthcare Expenditure (%), 2015

Table 93: Healthcare Infrastructure, Spain, R&D Expenditure by Field (%), 2013

Table 94: Healthcare Expenditure, Spain, Major Healthcare Trade Fairs, 2017

List of figures

List of Figures

Figure 1: Pharmaceutical Market, Spain, Revenue ($bn), 2009–2021

Figure 2: Medical Device Market, Spain, Revenue ($bn), 2009–2021

Figure 3: Country ...

List of Figures

Figure 1: Pharmaceutical Market, Spain, Revenue ($bn), 2009–2021

Figure 2: Medical Device Market, Spain, Revenue ($bn), 2009–2021

Figure 3: Country Profile, Spain, 2017

Figure 4: Pharmaceutical Market, Spain, Revenue ($bn), 2009–2016

Figure 5: Pharmaceutical Market, Spain, Revenue ($bn), 2017–2021

Figure 6: Pharmaceutical Market, Spain, Exports and Imports ($bn), 2009–2016

Figure 7: Pharmaceutical Market, Spain, Distribution Channels for Pharmaceuticals (%), 2012

Figure 8: Pharmaceutical Market, Spain, Generic Pharmaceutical Market Share (%), 2009–2016

Figure 9 Pharmaceutical Market, Spain, Red Biotechnology, Share of Diagnostics Pipeline by Disease Area (%), 2016

Figure 10 Pharmaceutical Market, Spain, Red Biotechnology, Share of Therapeutics Pipeline by Disease Area (%), 2016

Figure 11: Pharmaceutical Market, Spain, OTC Drug Market Revenue ($bn), 2009–2016

Figure 12: Pharmaceutical Market, Spain, Market Share of Major OTC Drug Classes (%), 2015

Figure 13: Pharmaceutical Market, Spain, Major Therapeutic Areas by Units Sold (millions), 2015

Figure 14: Medical Device Market, Spain, Revenue ($bn), 2009–2016

Figure 15: Medical Device Market, Spain, Revenue ($bn), 2017–2021

Figure 16: Medical Device Market, Spain, Revenue by Segment ($m), 2016

Figure 17: In Vitro Diagnostics Market, Spain, Revenue ($m), 2009–2016

Figure 18: In Vitro Diagnostics, Spain, Market Share of Major Players (%), 2014

Figure 19: Diabetes Care Device Market, Spain, Revenue ($m), 2009–2016

Figure 20: : Diabetes Care Device Market, Spain, Market Share of Major Players (%), 2015

Figure 21: Ophthalmic Device Market, Spain, Revenue ($m), 2009–2016

Figure 22: Ophthalmic Devices, Spain, Market Share of Major Players (%), 2015

Figure 23: Orthopedic Devices, Spain, Revenue ($m), 2009–2016

Figure 24: Orthopedic Devices, Spain, Market Share of Major Players (%), 2016

Figure 25: Hospital Supplies Market, Spain, Revenue ($m), 2009–2016

Figure 26: Hospital Supplies Market, Spain, Market Share of Major Players (%), 2014

Figure 27: Medical Device Market, Spain, Diagnostic Market, Revenue ($bn), 2009–2016

Figure 28: Medical Device Market, Spain, Diagnostic Market, Revenue ($bn), 2017–2021

Figure 29: Medical Device Market, Spain, Revenue of Major Players ($m), 2012

Figure 30: Healthcare Market, Spain, Drivers and Barriers, 2017

Figure 31: Market Access, Spain, Healthcare System, 2014

Figure 32: Healthcare System, Spain, Health Technology Assessment Process, 2014

Figure 33: Healthcare Expenditure, Spain, Out-of-Pocket Expenditure as Percentage of Total Expenditure (%), 2009–2016

Figure 34: Market Access, Spain, Healthcare Consumer Price Index Annual Change (%), 2009–2016

Figure 35: Market Access, Spain, Organizational Structure of AEMPS, 2016

Figure 36: Market Access, Spain, National Procedure, 2014

Figure 37: Market Access, EU, Centralized Procedure for Market Authorization, Pre-submission, 2016

Figure 38: Market Access, EU, Centralized Procedure, Market Authorization, Pre-opinion Phase, 2016

Figure 39: Market Access, EU, Centralized Procedure, Market Authorization, Post-opinion Phase, 2016

Figure 40: Market Access, EU, Decentralized Procedure, Market Authorization, 2016

Figure 41: Market Access, EU, Mutual Recognition Procedure, 2016

Figure 42: Market Access, EU, Conformity Assessment of Class I Medical Devices, 2016

Figure 43: Market Access, EU, Conformity Assessment of Class IIa Medical Devices, 2016

Figure 44: Market Access, EU, Conformity Assessment of Class IIb Medical Devices, 2016

Figure 45: Market Access, EU, Conformity Assessment of Class III Medical Devices, 2016

Figure 46: Economic Indicators, Spain, GDP per Capita ($), 2009–2016

Figure 47: Economic Indicators, Spain, GDP per Capita ($), 2017–2021

Figure 48: Economic Indicators, Spain, GDP Annual Growth (%), 2009–2016

Figure 49: Economic Indicators, Spain, GDP Annual Growth (%), 2017–2021

Figure 50: Economic Indicators, Spain, GNI per Capita ($), 2009–2016

Figure 51: Economic Indicators, Spain, Consumer Price Index, 2009–2016

Figure 52: Economic Indicators, Spain, Average Consumer Price Index, 2017–2021

Figure 53: Economic Indicators, Spain, Average Consumer Price Index, Annual Change (%), 2009–2016

Figure 54: Economic Indicators, Spain, Currency Exchange Rate (€/$), 2009–2016

Figure 55: Economic Indicators, Spain, Foreign Direct Investment ($bn), 2009–2016

Figure 56: Economic Indicators, Spain, Foreign Exchange Reserves ($bn), 2009–2016

Figure 57: Economic Indicators, Spain, Imports of Goods and Services ($bn), 2009–2016

Figure 58: Economic Indicators, Spain, Exports of Goods and Services ($bn), 2009–2016

Figure 59: Economic Indicators, Spain, Government Structural Balance ($bn), 2009–2016

Figure 60: Economic Indicators, Spain, Government Net Debt as Percentage of GDP (%), 2009–2016

Figure 61: Economic Indicators, Spain, Government Net Debt as Percentage of GDP (%), 2017–2021

Figure 62: Economic Indicators, Spain, Major Industries by Revenue ($bn), 2014

Figure 63: Demographics, Spain, Population (million), 2009–2016

Figure 64: Demographics, Spain, Population (million), 2017–2021

Figure 65: Demographics, Spain, Urban–Rural Population Share (%), 2009–2016

Figure 66: Demographics, Spain, Urban–Rural Population Share (%), 2017–2021

Figure 67: Demographics, Spain, Population Distribution by Age Group (%), 2009–2016

Figure 68: Demographics, Spain, Population Distribution by Age Group (%), 2017–2021

Figure 69: Demographics, Spain, Births (per 1,000 population), 2009–2016

Figure 70: Demographics, Spain, Mortality (per 1,000 population), 2009–2016

Figure 71: Demographics, Spain, Major Causes of Mortality , 2013

Figure 72: Demographics, Spain, Mortality Rate of Children Under Five (per 1,000 live births), 2009–2016

Figure 73: Demographics, Spain, Immunization Rate (%), 2009–2016

Figure 74: Demographics, Spain, Major Causes of Male Mortality 2013

Figure 75: Demographics, Spain, Major Causes of Female Mortality, 2013

Figure 76: Demographics, Spain, Gender Ratio (M/F), 2009–2016

Figure 77: Demographics, Spain, Life Expectancy at Birth (years), 2009–2016

Figure 78: Demographics, Spain, Students Enrolled at Different Levels in Non-university Courses (%), 2014–2015

Figure 79: Demographics, Spain, Students Enrolled at Different Levels in University Courses (%), 2013–2014

Figure 80: Demographics, Spain, Unemployment Rate (%), 2009–2016

Figure 81: Demographics, Spain, Distribution of Employment by Sector (%), 2015

Figure 82: Demographics, Spain, Number of Hospital Admissions and Diseases Diagnosed, 2015

Figure 83: Demographics, Spain, Major Diseases, Disability-Adjusted Life Years (000’), 2014

Figure 84: Healthcare Infrastructure, Spain, Hospitals, 2009–2016

Figure 85: Healthcare Infrastructure, Spain, Number of Hospitals by Type of Treatment, 2009–2016

Figure 86: Healthcare Infrastructure, Spain, Number of Hospitals by Sector, 2009–2016

Figure 87: Healthcare Infrastructure, Spain, Number of Hospital Beds by Sector, 2009–2016

Figure 88: Healthcare Infrastructure, Spain, Hospital Beds by Type of Treatment Provided, 2009–2016

Figure 89: Healthcare Infrastructure, Spain, Diagnostic Units (per 100,000 population), 2009–2016

Figure 90: Healthcare Infrastructure, Spain, Hospitals Beds (per 1,000 population), 2009–2016

Figure 91: Healthcare Infrastructure, Spain, Doctors (per 1,000 population), 2009–2016

Figure 92: Healthcare Infrastructure, Spain, PM2.5 (µg per m³), 2009–2016

Figure 93: Healthcare Infrastructure, Spain, CO2 Emissions (metric tons per capita), 2009–2016

Figure 94: Healthcare Infrastructure, Spain, Nurses, 2009–2016

Figure 95: Healthcare Infrastructure, Spain, Pharmacists, 2009–2016

Figure 96: Healthcare Infrastructure, Spain, Dentists, 2009–2016

Figure 97: Healthcare Infrastructure, Spain, Qualified Midwives, 2009–2016

Figure 98: Healthcare Infrastructure, Spain, Healthcare Expenditure as Percentage of GDP (%), 2009–2016

Figure 99: Healthcare Infrastructure, Spain, Public–Private Share of Expenditure (%), 2009–2016

Figure 100: Healthcare Infrastructure, Spain, Major Components of Healthcare Expenditure (%), 2015

Figure 101: Healthcare Infrastructure, Spain, R&D Expenditure by Field (%), 2013

Figure 102: Healthcare Market, Spain, Opportunities and Challenges, 2017

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